When rerating animals for various purposes including for milk, meat and egg the correct nutrients must be provide in correct proportions to have qualitatively and quantitatively higher products. In rearing cattle too, you must pay special attention to their nutrient levels. Nutrients should provide according to their requirements. Through this post we are going to discuss about some of the basic feed types we can used to feed the cattle.
Feed is the common term we use to identify the food we are giving for the animals in animal husbandry. These feeds can either grow or can synthesize. As food is human’s basic requirement, feed is also a basic requirement of the animals. The animals also need the nutrients need by the humans for their body functioning as well as to give a better output as milk, meat or eggs.
Types of nutrients needed by the cattle
Here as we are focusing on cattle feed, first of all we will see some types of nutrients needed by the cattle. Especially the dairy cattle.
Carbohydrates and fats – We need carbohydrates and small amount of fats for synthesizing the energy required by the body. As well cattle also need carbohydrates and fats for the same purpose. The energy synthesizing by the carbohydrates and proteins is use by the cattle body for various functions of the body. Adequate carbohydrate should include there in the cattle feed in order to provide energy needed for the body growth. Other than that, for milk production and muscle development also there should be enough carbohydrates.
Proteins- Just as humans the cattle also need proteins to grow up and to repair the body cells and tissues. But other than that, cattle need more protein to produce milk and meat. The main source of nutrient in these products is proteins. So, cattle need more protein than the amount needed for the maintenance of the body.
Vitamins and minerals – These nutrients are also need for the maintenance of the cattle body. Vitamins including vitamin A, D, E, K and vitamins like riboflavin, thiamin etc. are also need by the body to maintain it healthily and diseases free.
Minerals like magnesium, sodium chloride, iron, iodine, manganese, potassium, phosphorous, Sulphur etc. are need by the cattle body in trace amount for its functioning.
In addition, they need antibiotics and other stimulants too to have better functionality.
So, the cattle feed should supply in order to provide all these nutrients needed by the cattle body.
Types of cattle feeds
Basically, cattle feed can divide in to two main types named concentrates and roughages. We will learn about these types briefly under this section.
This is a cattle feed type which includes more energy and fat. This makes by combining protein supplements, energy source and a laxative too. That is why concentrates are rich with energy. Most of the time concentrates make from the cereals and other vegetable oil source. Cereal by products is also used here.
- Cereal grain meals
In here cereals like wheat, barley, oat, corn and sorghum are using to produce the cereal grain meals.
In here some farmers around the globe grow these cereals only for producing this cereal grain feed. As this growing of crops are seasonal proper managing of the cereals should be done very carefully. In here the cereals are dried until its moisture percentage is about 14 % and then stored well under better conditions for the future use.
These grains can grind and powdered or can feed as grains itself. Or else of you want you can mix the grains with other concentrate feeds to have a better nutritional effect.
- High protein meals
This meal is rich with proteins and fats. Can use as a supplement to most of the meal types. High protein meals are the residues we obtain after taking oil from the various vegetable oil seeds including coconut, palm oil, sunflower, soybean etc.
In addition to the above feeds rice brans, rice hulls, cane molasses obtain in sugarcane industry and other by products from wheat milling are also use as concentrates to feed the cattle. Moreover, the byproducts of the dairy industry like dried whey, dried skim etc. can also use. These are rich with nutrients need by the cattle for their survival and the production.
Under this category pasture comes at the first place. In here the cattle can feed with different types of forages and pasture including grass, trees, tree parts, legumes etc. in here the animals are allow to graze. This can consider as a feed that supplies all most all the nutrients needed by the cattle by using a one feed. In here you can either cultivate the pasture or you can use the natural forages and pasture.
- Hay and silage
Hay and silage are also a commonly using animal feed manufactures by using the pasture. This can be stored for quite a longer period of time and can use to feed the cattle when the fresh pasture is lack.
- Silage– this produces by storing the immature pastures in airtight containers. This allows to grow the lactic acid and the acetic acid which helps to conserve the pasture.
- Hay- hay produces by drying the mature pasture. In here the moisture content is reducing up to 14% to preserve it.
Root crops like cassava, turnips, potatoes also come under the category roughages and you can use these feeds also to feed you cattle.
If you want to have a better income from your cattle farm then use the correct ration of the feed. Here you can use the best feed ration that suits with your economy. We will meet with more datils about the cattle feeds in my future posts.